This is a purely informative rendering of an RFC that includes verified errata. This rendering may not be used as a reference.

The following 'Verified' errata have been incorporated in this document: EID 502
Network Working Group                                     S. Sherry
Request for Comments: 2092                                   Xyplex
Category: Informational                                    G. Meyer
                                                       January 1997

                  Protocol Analysis for Triggered RIP

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.


   As required by Routing Protocol Criteria [1], this report documents
   the key features of Triggered Extensions to RIP to Support Demand
   Circuits [2] and the current implementation experience.

   As a result of the improved characteristics of Triggered RIP, it is
   proposed that Demand RIP [5] be obsoleted.


   The authors wish to thank Johanna Kruger and Jim Pearl of Xyplex for
   many comments and suggestions which improved this effort.

1. Protocol Documents

   "Triggered Extensions to RIP to Support Demand Circuits" [2] suggests
   an enhancement to the "Routing Internet Protocol" (RIP) [3] and
   "RIP-2" [4] to allow them to run more cost-effectively on Wide Area
   Networks (WANs).

2. Applicability

   Triggered RIP requires that there is an underlying mechanism for
   determining unreachability in a finite predictable period.

   The triggered extensions to RIP are particularly appropriate for WANs
   where the cost - either financial or packet overhead - would make
   periodic transmission of routing (or service advertising) updates

   o  Connection oriented Public Data Networks - for example X.25 packet
      switched networks or ISDN.

   o  Point-to-point links supporting PPP link quality monitoring or
      echo request to determine link failure.

   A triggered RIP implementation runs standard RIP on Local Area
   Networks  (LANs) allowing them to interoperate transparently with
   implementations adhering to the original specifications.

3. Key Features

   The proposal shares the same basic algorithms as RIP or RIP-2 when
   running on LANs; Packet formats, broadcast frequency, triggered
   update operation and  database timeouts are all unmodified.

   The new features operate on WANs which use switched circuits on
   demand to achieve intermittent connectivity; Or on permanent WAN
   connections where there is a desire to keep routing packet overhead
   to a minimum.  Instead of using periodic 'broadcasts', information is
   only sent as triggered updates.  The proposal makes use of features
   of the underlying connection oriented service to provide feedback on

3.1 Triggered Updates

   Updates are only sent on the WAN when an event changes the routing
   database.  Each update is retransmitted until acknowledged.
   Information received in an update is not timed out.

   The packet format of a RIP response is modified (with a different
   unique command field) to include sequence number information.  An
   acknowledgement packet is also defined.

3.2 Circuit Manager

   The circuit manager running below the IP network layer is responsible
   for establishing a circuit to the next hop router whenever there is
   data (or a routing update) to transfer.  After a period of inactivity
   the circuit will be closed by the circuit manager.

   If the circuit manager fails to make a connection a circuit down
   indication is sent to the routing application.  The circuit manager
   will then attempt at (increasing) intervals to establish a
   connection.   When successful a circuit up indication is sent to the
   routing application.

3.3 Technology Restrictions

   There is a small but nontrivial possiblility of an incorrectly
   configured or poorly operating link causing severe data loss,
   resulting in a 'black hole' in routing. This is often unidirectional
   - the link that route updates cross works properly, but not the
   return path.

      Triggered RIP will NOT function properly (and should NOT be used) if a 
   routing information will be retained/advertised for an arbitrarily
   long period of time (until an update in the opposite direction fails
   to obtain a response).

EID 502 (Verified) is as follows:

Section: 3.3.

Original Text:

   Triggered RIP will NOT fuction properly (and should NOT be used) if a
   routing information will be retained/advertised for an arbitrarily
   long period of time (until an update in the opposite direction fails
   to obtain a response).

Corrected Text:

   Triggered RIP will NOT function properly (and should NOT be used) if a
   routing information will be retained/advertised for an arbitrarily
   long period of time (until an update in the opposite direction fails
   to obtain a response).
To detect black holes in technologies which use PPP encapsulation, either Echo Request/Response or Link Quality Monitoring should be used. When a black hole is detected a circuit down indication must be sent to the routing application. Current (and future) technologies which do not use PPP, need to use an equivalent 'are-you-there' mechanism - or should NOT be used with Triggered RIP. 3.4 Presumption of Reachability In a stable network there is no requirement to propagate routing information on a circuit, so if no routing information is (being) received on a circuit it is assumed that: o The most recently received information is accurate. o The intervening path is operational (although there may be no current connection). If the circuit manager determines that the intervening path is NOT operational routing information previously received on that circuit is timed out. It is worth stressing that it can be ANY routed datagram which triggers the event. When the circuit manager re-establishes a connection, the application exchanges full routing information with its peer. 3.5 Routing Information Flow Control If the circuit manager reports a circuit as down, the routing application is flow controlled from sending further information on the circuit. 4. Relationship to Demand RIP The Triggered RIP proposal [2] has a number of efficiency advantages over the Demand RIP proposal [5]: o When routing information changes Demand RIP sends the full database to its partner. Once a router has exchanged all routing information with its partner, Triggered RIP sends only the changed information to the partner. This can dramatically decrease the quantity of information requiring propagation when a route change occurs. o Demand RIP requires a full routing update to be stored by the receiver, before applying changes to the routing database. A Triggered RIP receiver is able to apply all changes immediately upon receiving each packet from its partner. Systems therefore need to use less memory than Demand RIP. o Demand RIP has an upper limit of 255 fragments in an update. This sets an upper limit on the sizes of routing and service advertising databases which can be propagated. This restriction is lifted in Triggered RIP (which does not use fragmentation). In all other respects Demand RIP and Triggered RIP perform the same function. 5. Obsoleting Demand RIP While it is possible that systems could be able to support Demand RIP and Triggered RIP, the internal maintenance of structures is likely to differ significantly. The method of propagating the information also differs significantly. In practice it is unlikely that systems would support Demand RIP and Triggered RIP. As a result of the improved characteristics of Triggered RIP, it is proposed that Demand RIP [5] be obsoleted. 6. Implementations At this stage there are believed to be two completed implementation. The Xyplex implementation supports all the features outlined for IP RIP-1, IP RIP-2, IPX RIP, and IPX SAP. However, it only supports one outstanding acknowledgement per partner. The implementation has been tested against itself on X.25, ISDN, Frame Relay, V42bis CSU/DSUs, and asynchronous modems. It has also been tested in operation with various router and host implementations on Ethernet LANs. The DEC implementation supports IP RIP-1 over ISDN, Frame Relay, leased lines and V.25bis. The Xyplex and DEC IP RIP-1 implementations have been checked for interoperability over ISDN without problems. 7. Restrictions Demand RIP relies on the ability to place a call in either direction. Some dialup services - for example DTR dialing - allow calls to be made in one direction only. Demand RIP can not operate with third-party advertisement of routes on the WAN. The next hop IP address in RIP-2 should always be for any routes advertised on the WAN. 8. Security Considerations Security is provided through authentication of the logical and physical address of the sender of the routing update. Incoming call requests are matched by the circuit manager against a list of physical addresses (used to make outgoing calls). The routing application makes a further check against the logical address of an incoming update. Additional security can be provided by RIP-2 authentication [2] where appropriate. References [1] Hinden, R., "Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Routing Protocol Standardization Criteria", RFC 1264, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc, October 1991. [2] Meyer. G.M. and Sherry, S., "Triggered Extensions to RIP to Support Demand Circuits", RFC 2091, Shiva and Xyplex, Aug 1995. [3] Hedrick. C., "Routing Information Protocol", RFC 1058, Rutgers University, June 1988. [4] Malkin. G., "RIP Version 2 - Carrying Additional Information", RFC 1723, Xylogics, November 1994. [5] Meyer. G., "Extensions to RIP to Support Demand Circuits", Spider Systems, February 1994. Authors' Address: Steve Sherry Xyplex 295 Foster St. Littleton, MA 01460 Phone: (US) 508 952 4745 Fax: (US) 508 952 4887 Email: Gerry Meyer Shiva Europe Ltd Stanwell Street Edinburgh EH6 5NG Scotland, UK Phone: (UK) 131 561 4223 Fax: (UK) 131 561 4083 Email: